This article examines the legal protection of indigenous knowledge in Tanzania as well as the world at large. The paper starts by looking at various definitions of traditional knowledge as propounded by different scholars who have written in the subject. The paper examines also the relation between traditional knowledge vis-a-vis formal knowledge. It proceeds to examine reasons for the protection of indigenous knowledge and in addition the author surveys the protection mechanism of indigenous knowledge both in Tanzania and in the international arena. Lastly the paper recommends for the suitable mechanisms for the protection of indigenous knowledge.